CentOS7下初始化PostgreSQL

1、安装epel;

rpm -ivh http://mirrors.hustunique.com/epel/beta/7/x86_64/epel-release-7-0.2.noarch.rpm

2、安装postgresql;

yum install postgresql*

3、初始化数据库;

postgresql-setup initdb

4、启动postgresql并设置为开机自启动;

systemctl restart postgresql
systemctl enable postgresql

5、登进数据库看看状态;(可略)

su - postgres
psql
\du (查看角色)
\l (列出所有数据库)
\q (退出)

6、创建角色(postgresql中的用户)和数据库实例;

su - postgres
createuser dbuser
createdb -e -O dbuser dbname

7、给新用户设定密码

su - postgres
psql
\password dbuser (输入两次密码)
vim /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf

在/var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf中,将默认验证方法

host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            ident

改为密码验证

host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            md5

8、重启数据库,让新的验证方法生效

systemctl restart postgresql

9、新用户登录数据库;

psql -U dbuser -d dbname -h 127.0.0.1 (输入之前的密码)

10、玩耍;(以下操作皆在postgresql终端中)

\dp (查看当前库中的表)
create table test1 (t1 int, t2 varchar(20));
\dp

\d test1 (查看表结构)

select * from test1 limit 10;

insert into test1 (t1,t2) values (11, 'ccccc'), (22, 'aaaa');

select * from test1 limit 10;

truncate table test1;

select * from test1 limit 10;

drop table test1;

select * from test1 limit 10;

\dp

20140826备忘三则

MySQL在5.6之后innodb支持全文检索

原来只能在myisam上建的fulltext index现在也可以建在innodb上了。
使用myisam的最后一个理由也消失了。

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/fulltext-search.html

Full-text indexes can be used only with InnoDB or MyISAM tables, and can be created only for CHAR, VARCHAR, or TEXT columns.

但是5.6.5-5.6.20之间的版本存在BUG。

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/innodb-fulltext-index.html

Due to a bug introduced in MySQL 5.6.5, index tables are created in the InnoDB system tablespace (space 0) when innodb_file_per_table is enabled. The bug is fixed in MySQL 5.6.20 and MySQL 5.7.5

rails4验证插件

目前只有authlogic https://github.com/binarylogic/authlogic 支持rails4

cancan https://github.com/ryanb/cancan 支持到rails3

restful-authentication https://github.com/technoweenie/restful-authentication 支持到rails2

systemd下启动服务

升级到CentOS7之后,/etc/init.d/下的东西都没有了。

取而代之的是这样一段话:

file: /etc/init.d/README
你在运行一个基于systemd的操作系统。传统的init脚本已经被systemd服务文件替代了。
执行"systemctl",你可以看到现在运行的服务。
执行"systemctl list-unit-files",你可以看到所有已知的服务。
使用"systemctl start foobar.service"和"systemctl stop foobar.service"来启动和停止服务。
想知道更多请执行"man systemctl"。
扩展阅读

http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/systemd-for-admins-3.html


http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities

好吧,我听话扩展阅读了一下子。systemctl其实是原来service和chkconfig的合体。
那么原来chkconfig设置自启动现在变成了这样子——

systemctl enable httpd
systemctl disable httpd

查看状态则变成了

systemctl status httpd

Ffmpeg中的文件格式

详见文件”libavformat/allformats.c”。


/*
 * Register all the formats and protocols
 * Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002 Fabrice Bellard
 *
 * This file is part of FFmpeg.
 *
 * FFmpeg is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * FFmpeg is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License along with FFmpeg; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
 */

#include "avformat.h"
#include "rtp.h"
#include "rdt.h"
#include "url.h"
#include "version.h"

#define REGISTER_MUXER(X, x)                                            \
    {                                                                   \
        extern AVOutputFormat ff_##x##_muxer;                           \
        if (CONFIG_##X##_MUXER)                                         \
            av_register_output_format(&ff_##x##_muxer);                 \
    }

#define REGISTER_DEMUXER(X, x)                                          \
    {                                                                   \
        extern AVInputFormat ff_##x##_demuxer;                          \
        if (CONFIG_##X##_DEMUXER)                                       \
            av_register_input_format(&ff_##x##_demuxer);                \
    }

#define REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(X, x) REGISTER_MUXER(X, x); REGISTER_DEMUXER(X, x)

#define REGISTER_PROTOCOL(X, x)                                         \
    {                                                                   \
        extern URLProtocol ff_##x##_protocol;                           \
        if (CONFIG_##X##_PROTOCOL)                                      \
            ffurl_register_protocol(&ff_##x##_protocol,                 \
                                    sizeof(ff_##x##_protocol));         \
    }

void av_register_all(void)
{
    static int initialized;

    if (initialized)
        return;
    initialized = 1;

    avcodec_register_all();

    /* (de)muxers */
    REGISTER_MUXER   (A64,              a64);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AAC,              aac);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AC3,              ac3);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ACT,              act);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ADF,              adf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ADP,              adp);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (ADTS,             adts);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ADX,              adx);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AEA,              aea);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AFC,              afc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AIFF,             aiff);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AMR,              amr);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ANM,              anm);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (APC,              apc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (APE,              ape);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AQTITLE,          aqtitle);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ASF,              asf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ASS,              ass);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AST,              ast);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (ASF_STREAM,       asf_stream);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AU,               au);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AVI,              avi);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AVISYNTH,         avisynth);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (AVM2,             avm2);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AVR,              avr);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AVS,              avs);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BETHSOFTVID,      bethsoftvid);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BFI,              bfi);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BINTEXT,          bintext);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BINK,             bink);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(BIT,              bit);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BMV,              bmv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BRSTM,            brstm);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BOA,              boa);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (C93,              c93);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(CAF,              caf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(CAVSVIDEO,        cavsvideo);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (CDG,              cdg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (CDXL,             cdxl);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (CONCAT,           concat);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (CRC,              crc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DATA,             data);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DAUD,             daud);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DFA,              dfa);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DIRAC,            dirac);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DNXHD,            dnxhd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DSICIN,           dsicin);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DTS,              dts);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DTSHD,            dtshd);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DV,               dv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DXA,              dxa);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (EA,               ea);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (EA_CDATA,         ea_cdata);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(EAC3,             eac3);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (EPAF,             epaf);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (F4V,              f4v);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FFM,              ffm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FFMETADATA,       ffmetadata);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FILMSTRIP,        filmstrip);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FLAC,             flac);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (FLIC,             flic);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FLV,              flv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (FOURXM,           fourxm);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (FRAMECRC,         framecrc);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (FRAMEMD5,         framemd5);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (FRM,              frm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(G722,             g722);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(G723_1,           g723_1);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (G729,             g729);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(GIF,              gif);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (GSM,              gsm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(GXF,              gxf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(H261,             h261);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(H263,             h263);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(H264,             h264);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (HEVC,             hevc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(HLS,              hls);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ICO,              ico);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IDCIN,            idcin);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IDF,              idf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IFF,              iff);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ILBC,             ilbc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IMAGE2,           image2);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IMAGE2PIPE,       image2pipe);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (INGENIENT,        ingenient);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IPMOVIE,          ipmovie);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (IPOD,             ipod);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IRCAM,            ircam);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (ISMV,             ismv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ISS,              iss);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IV8,              iv8);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IVF,              ivf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(JACOSUB,          jacosub);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (JV,               jv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(LATM,             latm);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LMLM4,            lmlm4);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LOAS,             loas);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LVF,              lvf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LXF,              lxf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(M4V,              m4v);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MD5,              md5);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MATROSKA,         matroska);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MATROSKA_AUDIO,   matroska_audio);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MGSTS,            mgsts);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MICRODVD,         microdvd);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MJPEG,            mjpeg);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MLP,              mlp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MM,               mm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MMF,              mmf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MOV,              mov);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MP2,              mp2);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MP3,              mp3);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MP4,              mp4);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPC,              mpc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPC8,             mpc8);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG1SYSTEM,      mpeg1system);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG1VCD,         mpeg1vcd);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG1VIDEO,       mpeg1video);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2DVD,         mpeg2dvd);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2SVCD,        mpeg2svcd);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2VIDEO,       mpeg2video);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2VOB,         mpeg2vob);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPEGPS,           mpegps);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MPEGTS,           mpegts);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPEGTSRAW,        mpegtsraw);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPEGVIDEO,        mpegvideo);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPJPEG,           mpjpeg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPL2,             mpl2);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPSUB,            mpsub);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MSNWC_TCP,        msnwc_tcp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MTV,              mtv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MV,               mv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MVI,              mvi);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MXF,              mxf);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MXF_D10,          mxf_d10);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MXG,              mxg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NC,               nc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NISTSPHERE,       nistsphere);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NSV,              nsv);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (NULL,             null);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(NUT,              nut);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NUV,              nuv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(OGG,              ogg);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(OMA,              oma);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PAF,              paf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_ALAW,         pcm_alaw);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_MULAW,        pcm_mulaw);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F64BE,        pcm_f64be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F64LE,        pcm_f64le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F32BE,        pcm_f32be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F32LE,        pcm_f32le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S32BE,        pcm_s32be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S32LE,        pcm_s32le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S24BE,        pcm_s24be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S24LE,        pcm_s24le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S16BE,        pcm_s16be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S16LE,        pcm_s16le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S8,           pcm_s8);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U32BE,        pcm_u32be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U32LE,        pcm_u32le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U24BE,        pcm_u24be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U24LE,        pcm_u24le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U16BE,        pcm_u16be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U16LE,        pcm_u16le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U8,           pcm_u8);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PJS,              pjs);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PMP,              pmp);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (PSP,              psp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PVA,              pva);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PVF,              pvf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (QCP,              qcp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (R3D,              r3d);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RAWVIDEO,         rawvideo);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (REALTEXT,         realtext);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (REDSPARK,         redspark);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (RL2,              rl2);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RM,               rm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ROQ,              roq);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (RPL,              rpl);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (RSD,              rsd);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RSO,              rso);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RTP,              rtp);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RTSP,             rtsp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SAMI,             sami);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SAP,              sap);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SBG,              sbg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SDP,              sdp);
#if CONFIG_RTPDEC
    av_register_rtp_dynamic_payload_handlers();
    av_register_rdt_dynamic_payload_handlers();
#endif
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SEGAFILM,         segafilm);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (SEGMENT,          segment);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (SEGMENT,          stream_segment);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SHORTEN,          shorten);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SIFF,             siff);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SMACKER,          smacker);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SMJPEG,           smjpeg);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (SMOOTHSTREAMING,  smoothstreaming);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SMUSH,            smush);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SOL,              sol);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SOX,              sox);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SPDIF,            spdif);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SRT,              srt);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (STR,              str);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SUBVIEWER1,       subviewer1);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SUBVIEWER,        subviewer);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SWF,              swf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TAK,              tak);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (TEE,              tee);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TEDCAPTIONS,      tedcaptions);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (TG2,              tg2);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (TGP,              tgp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (THP,              thp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TIERTEXSEQ,       tiertexseq);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MKVTIMESTAMP_V2,  mkvtimestamp_v2);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TMV,              tmv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(TRUEHD,           truehd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TTA,              tta);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TXD,              txd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TTY,              tty);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(VC1,              vc1);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(VC1T,             vc1t);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VIVO,             vivo);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VMD,              vmd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VOBSUB,           vobsub);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(VOC,              voc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VPLAYER,          vplayer);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VQF,              vqf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(W64,              w64);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WAV,              wav);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (WC3,              wc3);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (WEBM,             webm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WEBVTT,           webvtt);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (WSAUD,            wsaud);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (WSVQA,            wsvqa);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WTV,              wtv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WV,               wv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XA,               xa);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XBIN,             xbin);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XMV,              xmv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XWMA,             xwma);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (YOP,              yop);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(YUV4MPEGPIPE,     yuv4mpegpipe);

    /* protocols */
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(BLURAY,           bluray);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(CACHE,            cache);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(CONCAT,           concat);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(CRYPTO,           crypto);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(DATA,             data);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FFRTMPCRYPT,      ffrtmpcrypt);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FFRTMPHTTP,       ffrtmphttp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FILE,             file);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FTP,              ftp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(GOPHER,           gopher);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HLS,              hls);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HTTP,             http);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HTTPPROXY,        httpproxy);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HTTPS,            https);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(MMSH,             mmsh);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(MMST,             mmst);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(MD5,              md5);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(PIPE,             pipe);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMP,             rtmp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPE,            rtmpe);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPS,            rtmps);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPT,            rtmpt);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPTE,           rtmpte);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPTS,           rtmpts);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTP,              rtp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(SCTP,             sctp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(SRTP,             srtp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(TCP,              tcp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(TLS,              tls);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(UDP,              udp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(UNIX,             unix);

    /* external libraries */
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LIBGME,           libgme);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LIBMODPLUG,       libmodplug);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(LIBNUT,           libnut);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LIBQUVI,          libquvi);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMP,          librtmp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPE,         librtmpe);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPS,         librtmps);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPT,         librtmpt);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPTE,        librtmpte);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBSSH,           libssh);
}

Ffmpeg中的像素格式

见”libavutil/pixfmt.h”。

/**
 * Pixel format.
 *
 * @note
 * AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32 is handled in an endian-specific manner. An RGBA
 * color is put together as:
 *  (A << 24) | (R << 16) | (G << 8) | B
 * This is stored as BGRA on little-endian CPU architectures and ARGB on
 * big-endian CPUs.
 *
 * @par
 * When the pixel format is palettized RGB (AV_PIX_FMT_PAL8), the palettized
 * image data is stored in AVFrame.data[0]. The palette is transported in
 * AVFrame.data[1], is 1024 bytes long (256 4-byte entries) and is
 * formatted the same as in AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32 described above (i.e., it is
 * also endian-specific). Note also that the individual RGB palette
 * components stored in AVFrame.data[1] should be in the range 0..255.
 * This is important as many custom PAL8 video codecs that were designed
 * to run on the IBM VGA graphics adapter use 6-bit palette components.
 *
 * @par
 * For all the 8bit per pixel formats, an RGB32 palette is in data[1] like
 * for pal8. This palette is filled in automatically by the function
 * allocating the picture.
 *
 * @note
 * Make sure that all newly added big-endian formats have (pix_fmt & 1) == 1
 * and that all newly added little-endian formats have (pix_fmt & 1) == 0.
 * This allows simpler detection of big vs little-endian.
 */
enum AVPixelFormat {
    AV_PIX_FMT_NONE = -1,
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P,   ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 12bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUYV422,   ///< packed YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, Y0 Cb Y1 Cr
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB24,     ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 24bpp, RGBRGB...
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR24,     ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 24bpp, BGRBGR...
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P,   ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P,   ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV410P,   ///< planar YUV 4:1:0,  9bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 4x4 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV411P,   ///< planar YUV 4:1:1, 12bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 4x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY8,     ///<        Y        ,  8bpp
    AV_PIX_FMT_MONOWHITE, ///<        Y        ,  1bpp, 0 is white, 1 is black, in each byte pixels are ordered from the msb to the lsb
    AV_PIX_FMT_MONOBLACK, ///<        Y        ,  1bpp, 0 is black, 1 is white, in each byte pixels are ordered from the msb to the lsb
    AV_PIX_FMT_PAL8,      ///< 8 bit with PIX_FMT_RGB32 palette
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ420P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 12bpp, full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV420P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ422P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV422P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ444P,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 24bpp, full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV444P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_XVMC_MPEG2_MC,///< XVideo Motion Acceleration via common packet passing
    AV_PIX_FMT_XVMC_MPEG2_IDCT,
    AV_PIX_FMT_UYVY422,   ///< packed YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, Cb Y0 Cr Y1
    AV_PIX_FMT_UYYVYY411, ///< packed YUV 4:1:1, 12bpp, Cb Y0 Y1 Cr Y2 Y3
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR8,      ///< packed RGB 3:3:2,  8bpp, (msb)2B 3G 3R(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR4,      ///< packed RGB 1:2:1 bitstream,  4bpp, (msb)1B 2G 1R(lsb), a byte contains two pixels, the first pixel in the byte is the one composed by the 4 msb bits
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR4_BYTE, ///< packed RGB 1:2:1,  8bpp, (msb)1B 2G 1R(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB8,      ///< packed RGB 3:3:2,  8bpp, (msb)2R 3G 3B(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB4,      ///< packed RGB 1:2:1 bitstream,  4bpp, (msb)1R 2G 1B(lsb), a byte contains two pixels, the first pixel in the byte is the one composed by the 4 msb bits
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB4_BYTE, ///< packed RGB 1:2:1,  8bpp, (msb)1R 2G 1B(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV12,      ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 12bpp, 1 plane for Y and 1 plane for the UV components, which are interleaved (first byte U and the following byte V)
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV21,      ///< as above, but U and V bytes are swapped

    AV_PIX_FMT_ARGB,      ///< packed ARGB 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, ARGBARGB...
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA,      ///< packed RGBA 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, RGBARGBA...
    AV_PIX_FMT_ABGR,      ///< packed ABGR 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, ABGRABGR...
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA,      ///< packed BGRA 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, BGRABGRA...

    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16BE,  ///<        Y        , 16bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16LE,  ///<        Y        , 16bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV440P,   ///< planar YUV 4:4:0 (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x2 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ440P,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:0 full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV440P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples)
#if FF_API_VDPAU
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_H264,///< H.264 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_MPEG1,///< MPEG-1 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_MPEG2,///< MPEG-2 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_WMV3,///< WMV3 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_VC1, ///< VC-1 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48BE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48LE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as little-endian

    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565BE,  ///< packed RGB 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5R 6G 5B(lsb), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565LE,  ///< packed RGB 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5R 6G 5B(lsb), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555BE,  ///< packed RGB 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5R 5G 5B(lsb), big-endian, most significant bit to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555LE,  ///< packed RGB 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5R 5G 5B(lsb), little-endian, most significant bit to 0

    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565BE,  ///< packed BGR 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5B 6G 5R(lsb), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565LE,  ///< packed BGR 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5B 6G 5R(lsb), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555BE,  ///< packed BGR 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5B 5G 5R(lsb), big-endian, most significant bit to 1
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555LE,  ///< packed BGR 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5B 5G 5R(lsb), little-endian, most significant bit to 1

    AV_PIX_FMT_VAAPI_MOCO, ///< HW acceleration through VA API at motion compensation entry-point, Picture.data[3] contains a vaapi_render_state struct which contains macroblocks as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VAAPI_IDCT, ///< HW acceleration through VA API at IDCT entry-point, Picture.data[3] contains a vaapi_render_state struct which contains fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VAAPI_VLD,  ///< HW decoding through VA API, Picture.data[3] contains a vaapi_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers

    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
#if FF_API_VDPAU
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_MPEG4,  ///< MPEG4 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_DXVA2_VLD,    ///< HW decoding through DXVA2, Picture.data[3] contains a LPDIRECT3DSURFACE9 pointer

    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444LE,  ///< packed RGB 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4R 4G 4B(lsb), little-endian, most significant bits to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444BE,  ///< packed RGB 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4R 4G 4B(lsb), big-endian, most significant bits to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444LE,  ///< packed BGR 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4B 4G 4R(lsb), little-endian, most significant bits to 1
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444BE,  ///< packed BGR 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4B 4G 4R(lsb), big-endian, most significant bits to 1
    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY8A,    ///< 8bit gray, 8bit alpha
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48BE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48LE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as little-endian

    /**
     * The following 12 formats have the disadvantage of needing 1 format for each bit depth.
     * Notice that each 9/10 bits sample is stored in 16 bits with extra padding.
     * If you want to support multiple bit depths, then using AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16* with the bpp stored separately is better.
     */
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 13.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 13.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10BE,///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 15bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10LE,///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 15bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10BE,///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10LE,///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10BE,///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10LE,///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDA_VLD,    ///< hardware decoding through VDA

#ifdef AV_PIX_FMT_ABI_GIT_MASTER
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64BE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64BE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP,      ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 24bpp
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9BE,   ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 27bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9LE,   ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 27bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10BE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 30bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10LE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 30bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16BE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 48bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16LE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 48bpp, little-endian

    /**
     * duplicated pixel formats for compatibility with libav.
     * FFmpeg supports these formats since May 8 2012 and Jan 28 2012 (commits f9ca1ac7 and 143a5c55)
     * Libav added them Oct 12 2012 with incompatible values (commit 6d5600e85)
     */
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P_LIBAV,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P_LIBAV,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples)

    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P9BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 22.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P9LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 22.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P9BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P9LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P9BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P9LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P10BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 25bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P10LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 25bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P10BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P10LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P10BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P10LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P16BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P16LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P16BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P16LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P16BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 64bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P16LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 64bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)

    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU,     ///< HW acceleration through VDPAU, Picture.data[3] contains a VdpVideoSurface

    AV_PIX_FMT_XYZ12LE,      ///< packed XYZ 4:4:4, 36 bpp, (msb) 12X, 12Y, 12Z (lsb), the 2-byte value for each X/Y/Z is stored as little-endian, the 4 lower bits are set to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_XYZ12BE,      ///< packed XYZ 4:4:4, 36 bpp, (msb) 12X, 12Y, 12Z (lsb), the 2-byte value for each X/Y/Z is stored as big-endian, the 4 lower bits are set to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV16,         ///< interleaved chroma YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV20LE,       ///< interleaved chroma YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV20BE,       ///< interleaved chroma YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian

#ifndef AV_PIX_FMT_ABI_GIT_MASTER
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64BE=0x123,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64BE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_0RGB=0x123+4,      ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 32bpp, 0RGB0RGB...
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB0,      ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 32bpp, RGB0RGB0...
    AV_PIX_FMT_0BGR,      ///< packed BGR 8:8:8, 32bpp, 0BGR0BGR...
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR0,      ///< packed BGR 8:8:8, 32bpp, BGR0BGR0...
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples)

    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,21bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,21bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,28bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,28bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,42bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,42bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12BE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 36bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12LE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 36bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14BE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 42bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14LE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 42bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP,       ///< planar GBRA 4:4:4:4 32bpp
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP16BE,   ///< planar GBRA 4:4:4:4 64bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP16LE,   ///< planar GBRA 4:4:4:4 64bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ411P,    ///< planar YUV 4:1:1, 12bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 4x1 Y samples) full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV411P and setting color_range

    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR8,    ///< bayer, BGBG..(odd line), GRGR..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB8,    ///< bayer, RGRG..(odd line), GBGB..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG8,    ///< bayer, GBGB..(odd line), RGRG..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG8,    ///< bayer, GRGR..(odd line), BGBG..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR16LE, ///< bayer, BGBG..(odd line), GRGR..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR16BE, ///< bayer, BGBG..(odd line), GRGR..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB16LE, ///< bayer, RGRG..(odd line), GBGB..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB16BE, ///< bayer, RGRG..(odd line), GBGB..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG16LE, ///< bayer, GBGB..(odd line), RGRG..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG16BE, ///< bayer, GBGB..(odd line), RGRG..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG16LE, ///< bayer, GRGR..(odd line), BGBG..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG16BE, ///< bayer, GRGR..(odd line), BGBG..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */

    AV_PIX_FMT_NB,        ///< number of pixel formats, DO NOT USE THIS if you want to link with shared libav* because the number of formats might differ between versions

#if FF_API_PIX_FMT
#include "old_pix_fmts.h"
#endif
};

#if AV_HAVE_INCOMPATIBLE_LIBAV_ABI
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P_LIBAV
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P_LIBAV
#endif


#define AV_PIX_FMT_Y400A AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY8A
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBR24P AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP

#if AV_HAVE_BIGENDIAN
#   define AV_PIX_FMT_NE(be, le) AV_PIX_FMT_##be
#else
#   define AV_PIX_FMT_NE(be, le) AV_PIX_FMT_##le
#endif

#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32   AV_PIX_FMT_NE(ARGB, BGRA)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGBA, ABGR)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32   AV_PIX_FMT_NE(ABGR, RGBA)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGRA, ARGB)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_0RGB32  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(0RGB, BGR0)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_0BGR32  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(0BGR, RGB0)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GRAY16BE, GRAY16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB48BE,  RGB48LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB565BE, RGB565LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB555BE, RGB555LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB444BE, RGB444LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR48BE,  BGR48LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR565BE, BGR565LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR555BE, BGR555LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR444BE, BGR444LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P9BE , YUV420P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P9BE , YUV422P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P9BE , YUV444P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P10BE, YUV420P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P10BE, YUV422P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P10BE, YUV444P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P12BE, YUV420P12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P12BE, YUV422P12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P12BE, YUV444P12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P14BE, YUV420P14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P14BE, YUV422P14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P14BE, YUV444P14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P16BE, YUV420P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P16BE, YUV422P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P16BE, YUV444P16LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGBA64BE, RGBA64LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGRA64BE, BGRA64LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9     AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP9BE ,    GBRP9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP10BE,    GBRP10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP12BE,    GBRP12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP14BE,    GBRP14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP16BE,    GBRP16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP16   AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRAP16BE,   GBRAP16LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_BGGR16BE,    BAYER_BGGR16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_RGGB16BE,    BAYER_RGGB16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_GBRG16BE,    BAYER_GBRG16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_GRBG16BE,    BAYER_GRBG16LE)


#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA420P9BE , YUVA420P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA422P9BE , YUVA422P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA444P9BE , YUVA444P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA420P10BE, YUVA420P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA422P10BE, YUVA422P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA444P10BE, YUVA444P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA420P16BE, YUVA420P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA422P16BE, YUVA422P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA444P16BE, YUVA444P16LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_XYZ12      AV_PIX_FMT_NE(XYZ12BE, XYZ12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_NV20       AV_PIX_FMT_NE(NV20BE,  NV20LE)

#if FF_API_PIX_FMT
#define PixelFormat AVPixelFormat

#define PIX_FMT_Y400A AV_PIX_FMT_Y400A
#define PIX_FMT_GBR24P AV_PIX_FMT_GBR24P

#define PIX_FMT_NE(be, le) AV_PIX_FMT_NE(be, le)

#define PIX_FMT_RGB32   AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32
#define PIX_FMT_RGB32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32_1
#define PIX_FMT_BGR32   AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32
#define PIX_FMT_BGR32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32_1
#define PIX_FMT_0RGB32  AV_PIX_FMT_0RGB32
#define PIX_FMT_0BGR32  AV_PIX_FMT_0BGR32

#define PIX_FMT_GRAY16 AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16
#define PIX_FMT_RGB48  AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48
#define PIX_FMT_RGB565 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565
#define PIX_FMT_RGB555 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555
#define PIX_FMT_RGB444 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444
#define PIX_FMT_BGR48  AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48
#define PIX_FMT_BGR565 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565
#define PIX_FMT_BGR555 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555
#define PIX_FMT_BGR444 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444

#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P9  AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P9  AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P9  AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P10 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P10 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P10 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P12 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P12 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P12 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P14 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P14 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P14 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P16 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P16 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P16 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16

#define PIX_FMT_RGBA64 AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64
#define PIX_FMT_BGRA64 AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP9  AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP10 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP12 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP14 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP16 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16
#endif

#endif /* AVUTIL_PIXFMT_H */

【 Perl 】控制Firefox实现自动化Web测试

安装

1、安装Firefox插件

git clone git://github.com/bard/mozrepl
cd mozrepl
zip -r ../mozrepl.zip *
cd ..
mv mozrepl.zip mozrepl.xpi

2、安装Perl模块

cpanm WWW::Mechanize::Firefox
cpanm HTML::Display::Common

3、启动插件
先打开Firefox;
然后Firefox -> 工具 -> MozRepl -> Start

4、开始写程序控制你的Firefox吧

一个简单的例子

以打开新浪首页为例。

use WWW::Mechanize::Firefox;
my $mech = WWW::Mechanize::Firefox->new( autoclose => 0, activate => 1 );
$mech->get('http://sina.com.cn');

一个稍复杂的例子

让Firefox自动打开百度首页
1、在终端上输出页面title;
2、在浏览器中搜索一个词”perl”。

use strict;
use warnings;

use WWW::Mechanize::Firefox;
binmode STDOUT, ':utf8';

my $mech = WWW::Mechanize::Firefox->new( autoclose => 0, activate => 1 );
$mech->get('http://baidu.com');
print $mech->title();
$mech->form_name( "f" );
$mech->set_fields( "wd", "perl" );
$mech->submit;

效果如这个视频所示

v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNzU3MTY2NTg4.html

抽取某条微博的全部评论

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
use warnings;

use WWW::Mechanize::Firefox;
use utf8::all;
use File::Slurp;
use JSON::XS;
use Encode;
use URL::Encode qw(url_decode_utf8 url_decode);
use Data::Dump qw(ddx);

my $mech = WWW::Mechanize::Firefox->new( autoclose => 1, activate => 1 );
my $url = 'http://weibo.com/aj/comment/big?_wv=5&id=3744295209134458&max_id=3744609358765392&filter=0&__rnd=1408272337687';
for ( 1 .. 42)
{
	$mech->get( "$url&page=$_" );
	my $a = encode( 'utf8', $mech->content( raw => 1 ));
	$a =~ s/.*?//g;
	$a =~ s/<\/prre><\/body><\/html>//g;
	#print $a;

	my %b = %{decode_json $a};
	my $c = $b{'data'}{'html'};
	$c =~ s/\n//smg;
	$c =~ s/\s+/ /smg;
	$c =~ s/>/>/smg;
	$c =~ s/</.*?<\/a>:.*?)/smg;
	foreach (@abc)
	{
		my ($name, $words) = $_ =~ /usercard="id=\d+">(.*?)<\/a>:(.*?)/;
		$name =~ s/<\/a>//g;
		$name =~ s///g;
		$words =~ s/<\/a>//g;
		$words =~ s///g;
		$words =~ s///g;
		print "$name => $words\n";
	}
}

相关文档

WWW::Mechanize https://metacpan.org/pod/WWW::Mechanize
WWW::Mechanize::Firefox https://metacpan.org/pod/WWW::Mechanize::Firefox
WWW::Mechanize::Firefox::Examples https://metacpan.org/pod/WWW::Mechanize::Firefox::Examples
WWW::Mechanize::Firefox::Cookbook https://metacpan.org/pod/distribution/WWW-Mechanize-Firefox/lib/WWW/Mechanize/Firefox/Cookbook.pod

和QTP、WinRunner、Selenium相比看看,Perl确实让这件事变得简单些了。

【 Perl 】三种方式解决” Wide character in subroutine/print “

1、binmode STDOUT, “:utf8″;

因为程序本身是用utf8编码的(可以用use utf;明示给Perl)。
这句话就是告诉Perl输出是utf8编码的。

2、use utf8::all;

当然,我们需要先安装这个模块 utf8::all
一劳永逸,所有涉及字符集编码的地方,此模版都会帮你设置为utf8;

3、encode( ‘utf8′, $_ );

嗯。需要先use Encode;。
对CPU有不小的开销。
这种处理方法的好处在于可以用于print之外的其它方法出现的”Wide character in subroutine”问题。管得比较宽。

4、原因

宽字节这事,是从windows C++发祥的。
我理解是懒得认真处理字符集问题的一种偷懒方式。将多个字节绑定为单一结构体内,以期达到hack式修复的目的。
这种做法确实使得在VS上编程时不用关心字符集了。
效果嘛,只能说在windows内部自己玩的时候还算蛮不错……

Redis服务器的sysctl.conf配置

调整思路

  1. 减少Linux系统自身,特别是IO系统对内存的使用,避免在内存上与Redis冲突;
  2. Redis的Dump动作是一个大型IO动作,为避免Dump冲击系统,将其触发的尖峰写操作适当削平成一个持续的写操作;
  3. 尽量让tcp栈保持干净;

参数选择理由

#0 表示内核将检查是否有足够的可用内存供应用进程使用;如果有足够的可用内存,内存申请允许;否则,内存申请失败,并把错误返回给应用进程。
#1 表示内核允许分配所有的物理内存,而不管当前的内存状态如何。
#2 表示内核允许分配超过所有物理内存和交换空间总和的内存
#我们设置为1,表示尽量给Redis内存,但不要把硬盘当内存分配给它。
#这是redis官方要求必须配置的选项。

vm.overcommit_memory = 1

#这个参数控制文件系统的文件系统写缓冲区的大小,单位是百分比,表示系统内存的百分比,表示当写缓冲使用到系统内存多少的时候,开始向磁盘写出数据。增大之会使用更多系统内存用于磁盘写缓冲,也可以极大提高系统的写性能。但是,当你需要持续、恒定的写入场合时,应该降低其数值,:

vm.dirty_ratio = 1

#这个参数控制文件系统的pdflush进程,在何时刷新磁盘。单位是百分比,表示系统内存的百分比,意思是当写缓冲使用到系统内存多少的时候,pdflush开始向磁盘写出数据。增大之会使用更多系统内存用于磁盘写缓冲,也可以极大提高系统的写性能。但是,当你需要持续、恒定的写入场合时,应该降低其数值,

vm.dirty_background_ratio = 1

#这个参数控制内核的脏数据刷新进程pdflush的运行间隔。单位是 1/100 秒。缺省数值是500,也就是 5 秒。如果你的系统是持续地写入动作,那么实际上还是降低这个数值比较好,这样可以把尖峰的写操作削平成多次写操作。设置方法如下

vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs = 100

#这个参数声明Linux内核写缓冲区里面的数据多“旧”了之后,pdflush进程就开始考虑写到磁盘中去。单位是 1/100秒。缺省是 30000,也就是 30 秒的数据就算旧了,将会刷新磁盘。对于特别重载的写操作来说,这个值适当缩小也是好的,但也不能缩小太多,因为缩小太多也会导致IO提高太快。

vm.dirty_expire_centisecs = 100

#该文件表示系统进行交换行为的程度,数值(0-100)越高,越可能发生磁盘交换。
#我们设置为0,表示不要进行swap

vm.swappiness = 10

#该文件表示内核回收用于directory和inode cache内存的倾向;缺省值100表示内核将根据pagecache和swapcache,把directory和inode cache保持在一个合理的百分比;降低该值低于100,将导致内核倾向于保留directory和inode cache;增加该值超过100,将导致内核倾向于回收directory和inode cache

vm.vfs_cache_pressure = 110

#1 To free pagecache:
#2 To free reclaimable slab objects (includes dentries and inodes):
#3 To free slab objects and pagecache:
#经过实验,此选项只在设置那一次会生效释放掉内存,此后IO占用的内存还会持续增长
#且再次执行sync也不释放,只有再次设置此选项才会再次释放,因此我们选择不设置此项

#vm.drop_caches = 3

#64位系统所有内存都被划分为lowmem,无需此项配置

#vm.lowmem_reserve_ratio = 32 32 8

#FreeBSD参数

#kern.maxvnodes = 3

#zone_reclaim_mode在内核默认就是禁用的。
#mongodb明确要求在NUMA系统上禁用此选项
#内核文档中说到如果打开此选项,NUMA节点在访问远端内存时会遭遇严重的性能问题。要求只在完全可以handle数据(cpu cache)位置时才调整此选项

vm.zone_reclaim_mode = 0

最终使用的配置

以下是一个64位的Linux-Redis服务器的最终sysctl.conf优化配置。
包括了 百次掉坑一朝总结之net.ipv4参数 中介绍的关于网络连接的优化配置。

#maximize the available memory
vm.overcommit_memory = 1
vm.dirty_ratio = 1
vm.swappiness = 10
vm.vfs_cache_pressure = 110
vm.zone_reclaim_mode = 0

#keep the IO performance steady
vm.dirty_background_ratio = 1
vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs = 100
vm.dirty_expire_centisecs = 100

#keep the tcp stack clean
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 1200
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024    65000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 8192
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 5000

参考文档

kernel.org的sysctl官方文档 https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sysctl/

freebsd官方内核调整建议 http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html

linux服务器lowmem不足引起系统崩溃的解决 http://blog.csdn.net/i3myself/article/details/8663801

淘宝内核维基 http://kernel.taobao.org/index.php/Kernel_Documents/mm_sysctl

磁盘读写参数设置 http://hi.baidu.com/roxws/item/4fb9fe2c368fdbd00e37f9e9

mongodb的NUMA问题 http://www.ttlsa.com/mongodb/mongodb-numa/

百次掉坑一朝总结之net.ipv4参数


#最小化连接数
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 1200
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1 #会导致NAT内网某些用户的连接问题,与tcp_timestamps共同作用
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024    65000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 8192
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 5000

#防止ip_conntrack爆掉
net.ipv4.netfilter.ip_conntrack_tcp_timeout_max_retrans = 120
net.ipv4.netfilter.ip_conntrack_max = 655360 

#接受组播流
net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 0 

#内存回收模式(某个zone内存不够时尝试gc)
vm.zone_reclaim_mode = 0 #多核机器建议设置为0

故障,真是一件让人心塞的事。

【 2014每月一模块 】URI::URL::AddQueryParam组装URL

URI::URL::AddQueryParam 这个模块主要用于在HTTP回调的时候增加GET参数。自动进行一些特殊的字符的处理,而且避免出现这样的代码:

if ($url =~ /?/ ) 
{
  $url .= "&" . $k . "=" . $v;
}
else
{
  $url .= "?" . $k . "=" . $v;
}

用法如下:

use URI::URL::AddQueryParam qw(http_add_query_param);
 
my %http_param = ('ta' => 'ok', 'foobar' => 1, 'hoge' => 0);
my $base_url = 'http://example.com/';
print http_add_query_param($base_url, \%http_param);
# got 'http://example.com/?ta=ok&hoge=0&foobar=1'
 
%http_param = ('ta' => 'ok', 'foobar' => 1, 'hoge' => 0);
$base_url = 'http://example.com?soso=gogo';
print http_add_query_param($base_url, \%http_param);
# got 'http://example.com/tt3.php?soso=gogo&ta=ok&hoge=0&foobar=1'

软件开发方法论的二十六篇经典

短文奉上原文和译文地址,书籍则附上豆瓣读书的地址以便购买。
尽量为所有的读物都附上了维基条目,没有维基的附上作者的介绍,方便了解写作背景。

豆列请戳这里

1. 文章 1968 《Goto语句有害》 中文译文 英文原文 中文维基 英文维基
2. 书籍 1968 《计算机程序设计艺术》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
3. 书籍 1971 《程序开发心理学》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a 英文维基
4. 文章 1972 《谦卑的程序员》图灵奖获奖演讲 中文译文 英文原文 中文维基 英文维基
5. 书籍 1975 《人月神话》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
6. 书籍 1979 《哥德尔、艾舍尔、巴赫》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
7. 书籍 1981 《计算机编程科学》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a 英文维基
8. 书籍 1982 《追求卓越》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
9. 文章 1985 《战略防御系统的软件部分》 n/a 英文原文 n/a n/a
10. 文章 1986 《没有银弹》 n/a 英文原文 中文维基 英文维基
11. 书籍 1989 《软件失控》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a 英文维基
12. 书籍 1994 《如何避免被计算机伤害》 亚马逊 Google图书 n/a n/a
13. 文章 1994 《不成熟的CMM》 n/a 英文原文 中文维基 英文维基
14. 文章 1996 《软件设计宣言》 n/a 英文原文 n/a n/a
15. 书籍 1997 《死亡之旅》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a 英文维基
16. 文章 1997 《大教堂和市集》 豆瓣读书 繁体译文 中文维基 英文维基
17. 书籍 1999 《软件的极限》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a n/a
18. 书籍 1999 《软件创新之路》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
19. 书籍 2000 《软件阴谋》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a n/a
20. 文章 2001 《敏捷宣言》 中文译文 英文原文 中文维基 英文维基
21. 书籍 2001 《Getting Things Done》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
22. 文章 2002 《设计决策》 n/a 英文原文 n/a n/a
23. 书籍 2004 《黑客与画家》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
24. 书籍 2004 《苹果往事》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a 英文维基
25. 书籍 2004 《Joel说软件》续篇《软件随想录 豆瓣读书 Google图书 中文维基 英文维基
26. 书籍 2007 《梦断代码》 豆瓣读书 Google图书 n/a 英文维基