rails4发布production版备忘

1、编译css和js

执行

  RAILS_ENV=production rake assets:precompile

如果出现错误

  did not recognize your adapter specification

如果multi_json不是版本1.7.9这个有问题的版本,则在Gemfile中增加

  gem 'yajl-ruby', :require => "yajl"

2、设置环境变量

export HANGUOMV_DATABASE_PASSWORD=xxxxx
export SECRET_KEY_BASE=xxxxx

3、初始化production的数据库

RAILS_ENV=productionrake db:create
RAILS_ENV=productionrake db:migrate

4、启动production的thin

rails s -p 3100 -b 127.0.0.1 -e production -P /var/www/rails/site/tmp/pids/server3100.pid -d
rails s -p 3101 -b 127.0.0.1 -e production -P /var/www/rails/site/tmp/pids/server3101.pid -d

5、配置httpd服务

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName www.site.com
    DocumentRoot /var/www/rails/site/public
    ErrorLog logs/www.site.com-error_log
    CustomLog logs/www.site.com-access_log common

    ProxyRequests Off
    <Proxy balancer://site>
        BalancerMember http://127.0.0.1:3100
        BalancerMember http://127.0.0.1:3101
    </Proxy>
    ProxyPass /assets !
    ProxyPass /robots.txt !
    ProxyPass /favicon.ico !
    #ProxyPass / http://127.0.0.1:3100/ connectiontimeout=5 timeout=30
    ProxyPass / balancer://site/
    ProxyPassReverse / balancer://site/
</VirtualHost>

6、启动服务

systemctl restart httpd

7、设置自启动

在/etc/rc.local中添加

cd /var/www/rails/hanguomv && SECRET_KEY_BASE=xxx rails s -p 3100 -b 127.0.0.1 -e production -P /var/www/rails/site/tmp/pids/server3100.pid -d && cd /root
cd /var/www/rails/hanguomv && SECRET_KEY_BASE=xxx rails s -p 3101 -b 127.0.0.1 -e production -P /var/www/rails/site/tmp/pids/server3101.pid -d && cd /root

rails4搭站备忘

1、安装系统依赖

yum install rubygem
yum install ruby-devel
yum install gcc
yum install nodejs
yum install v8
yum install httpd*
yum groupinstall "Development Tools"

gem install postgresql --no-ri --no-rdoc
gem install rake --no-ri --no-rdoc
gem install rails --no-ri --no-rdoc

2、配置httpd

vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/vhosts.conf增加如下内容
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName www.site.com
    ProxyPass / http://127.0.0.1:3000/ connectiontimeout=5 timeout=30
    ErrorLog logs/error_log
    CustomLog logs/access_log common
</VirtualHost>

systemctl start httpd

3、初始化postgresql

su - postgres
createuser sitedbuser
psql
\password sitedbuser
ALTER ROLE "sitedbuser" CREATEDB;

详见CentOS7下初始化PostgreSQL

4、创建站点

rails new site --database=postgresql
cd site

5、配置数据库连接

vim config/database.yml增加以下
  default: &default
  adapter: postgresql
  pool: 5
  host: 127.0.0.1
  port: 5432
  username: sitedbuser
  password: passwd

执行rake db:create

6、配置gem

vim Gemfile增加以下
  gem 'less-rails'
  gem 'therubyracer'
  gem 'twitter-bootstrap-rails'
  gem 'devise'
  gem 'thin'

执行bundle install

7、初始化bootstrap和devise

devise是权限控制插件。

rails g bootstrap:install
rails g devise:install
rails g devise:views
vim app/views/layouts/application.html.erb增加
  <p class="notice"><%= notice %></p>
  <p class="alert"><%= alert %></p>
  <%= yield %>

rails g devise User

如果想往用户表里面加字段则vim  db/migrate/*_devise_create_users.rb,默认不加就不用了。

rake db:migrate

8、汉化devise

cp config/locales/devise.en.yml config/locales/devise.zh.yml,汉化之
vim app/views/devise/sessions/new.html.erb,汉化之
vim app/views/devise/registrations/new.html.erb,汉化之

9、创建一个页面

创建一个控制器:rails g controller welcome index

在config/routes.rb里增加默认路由:root 'welcome#index'

给页面增加权限控制,vim app/controllers/welcome_controller.rb增加一行:
  before_filter :authenticate_user!

10、启动站点,然后创建更多MVC

rails s -p 3000 -b 127.0.0.1 -d
...

CentOS7下初始化PostgreSQL

1、安装epel;

rpm -ivh http://mirrors.hustunique.com/epel/beta/7/x86_64/epel-release-7-0.2.noarch.rpm

或者

yum install epel-release

2、安装postgresql;

yum install postgresql*

3、初始化数据库;

postgresql-setup initdb

4、启动postgresql并设置为开机自启动;

systemctl restart postgresql
systemctl enable postgresql

5、登进数据库看看状态;(可略)

su - postgres
psql
\du (查看角色)
\l (列出所有数据库)
\q (退出)

6、创建角色(postgresql中的用户)和数据库实例;

su - postgres
createuser dbuser
createdb -e -O dbuser dbname

7、给新用户设定密码

su - postgres
psql
\password dbuser (输入两次密码)
vim /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf

在/var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf中,将默认验证方法

host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            ident

改为密码验证

host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            md5

8、重启数据库,让新的验证方法生效

systemctl restart postgresql

9、新用户登录数据库;

psql -U dbuser -d dbname -h 127.0.0.1 (输入之前的密码)

10、玩耍;(以下操作皆在postgresql终端中)

\dp (查看当前库中的表)
create table test1 (t1 int, t2 varchar(20));
\dp

\d test1 (查看表结构)

select * from test1 limit 10;

insert into test1 (t1,t2) values (11, 'ccccc'), (22, 'aaaa');

select * from test1 limit 10;

truncate table test1;

select * from test1 limit 10;

drop table test1;

select * from test1 limit 10;

\dp

20140826备忘三则

MySQL在5.6之后innodb支持全文检索

原来只能在myisam上建的fulltext index现在也可以建在innodb上了。
使用myisam的最后一个理由也消失了。

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/fulltext-search.html

Full-text indexes can be used only with InnoDB or MyISAM tables, and can be created only for CHAR, VARCHAR, or TEXT columns.

但是5.6.5-5.6.20之间的版本存在BUG。

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/innodb-fulltext-index.html

Due to a bug introduced in MySQL 5.6.5, index tables are created in the InnoDB system tablespace (space 0) when innodb_file_per_table is enabled. The bug is fixed in MySQL 5.6.20 and MySQL 5.7.5

rails4验证插件

目前只有authlogic https://github.com/binarylogic/authlogic 支持rails4

cancan https://github.com/ryanb/cancan 支持到rails3

restful-authentication https://github.com/technoweenie/restful-authentication 支持到rails2

systemd下启动服务

升级到CentOS7之后,/etc/init.d/下的东西都没有了。

取而代之的是这样一段话:

file: /etc/init.d/README
你在运行一个基于systemd的操作系统。传统的init脚本已经被systemd服务文件替代了。
执行"systemctl",你可以看到现在运行的服务。
执行"systemctl list-unit-files",你可以看到所有已知的服务。
使用"systemctl start foobar.service"和"systemctl stop foobar.service"来启动和停止服务。
想知道更多请执行"man systemctl"。
扩展阅读

http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/systemd-for-admins-3.html


http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities

好吧,我听话扩展阅读了一下子。systemctl其实是原来service和chkconfig的合体。
那么原来chkconfig设置自启动现在变成了这样子——

systemctl enable httpd
systemctl disable httpd

查看状态则变成了

systemctl status httpd

Ffmpeg中的文件格式

详见文件”libavformat/allformats.c”。


/*
 * Register all the formats and protocols
 * Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002 Fabrice Bellard
 *
 * This file is part of FFmpeg.
 *
 * FFmpeg is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * FFmpeg is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License along with FFmpeg; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
 */

#include "avformat.h"
#include "rtp.h"
#include "rdt.h"
#include "url.h"
#include "version.h"

#define REGISTER_MUXER(X, x)                                            \
    {                                                                   \
        extern AVOutputFormat ff_##x##_muxer;                           \
        if (CONFIG_##X##_MUXER)                                         \
            av_register_output_format(&ff_##x##_muxer);                 \
    }

#define REGISTER_DEMUXER(X, x)                                          \
    {                                                                   \
        extern AVInputFormat ff_##x##_demuxer;                          \
        if (CONFIG_##X##_DEMUXER)                                       \
            av_register_input_format(&ff_##x##_demuxer);                \
    }

#define REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(X, x) REGISTER_MUXER(X, x); REGISTER_DEMUXER(X, x)

#define REGISTER_PROTOCOL(X, x)                                         \
    {                                                                   \
        extern URLProtocol ff_##x##_protocol;                           \
        if (CONFIG_##X##_PROTOCOL)                                      \
            ffurl_register_protocol(&ff_##x##_protocol,                 \
                                    sizeof(ff_##x##_protocol));         \
    }

void av_register_all(void)
{
    static int initialized;

    if (initialized)
        return;
    initialized = 1;

    avcodec_register_all();

    /* (de)muxers */
    REGISTER_MUXER   (A64,              a64);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AAC,              aac);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AC3,              ac3);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ACT,              act);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ADF,              adf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ADP,              adp);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (ADTS,             adts);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ADX,              adx);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AEA,              aea);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AFC,              afc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AIFF,             aiff);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AMR,              amr);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ANM,              anm);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (APC,              apc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (APE,              ape);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AQTITLE,          aqtitle);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ASF,              asf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ASS,              ass);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AST,              ast);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (ASF_STREAM,       asf_stream);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AU,               au);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(AVI,              avi);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AVISYNTH,         avisynth);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (AVM2,             avm2);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AVR,              avr);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (AVS,              avs);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BETHSOFTVID,      bethsoftvid);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BFI,              bfi);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BINTEXT,          bintext);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BINK,             bink);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(BIT,              bit);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BMV,              bmv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BRSTM,            brstm);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (BOA,              boa);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (C93,              c93);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(CAF,              caf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(CAVSVIDEO,        cavsvideo);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (CDG,              cdg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (CDXL,             cdxl);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (CONCAT,           concat);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (CRC,              crc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DATA,             data);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DAUD,             daud);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DFA,              dfa);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DIRAC,            dirac);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DNXHD,            dnxhd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DSICIN,           dsicin);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DTS,              dts);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DTSHD,            dtshd);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(DV,               dv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (DXA,              dxa);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (EA,               ea);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (EA_CDATA,         ea_cdata);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(EAC3,             eac3);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (EPAF,             epaf);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (F4V,              f4v);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FFM,              ffm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FFMETADATA,       ffmetadata);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FILMSTRIP,        filmstrip);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FLAC,             flac);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (FLIC,             flic);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(FLV,              flv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (FOURXM,           fourxm);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (FRAMECRC,         framecrc);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (FRAMEMD5,         framemd5);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (FRM,              frm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(G722,             g722);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(G723_1,           g723_1);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (G729,             g729);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(GIF,              gif);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (GSM,              gsm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(GXF,              gxf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(H261,             h261);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(H263,             h263);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(H264,             h264);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (HEVC,             hevc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(HLS,              hls);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ICO,              ico);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IDCIN,            idcin);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IDF,              idf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IFF,              iff);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ILBC,             ilbc);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IMAGE2,           image2);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IMAGE2PIPE,       image2pipe);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (INGENIENT,        ingenient);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IPMOVIE,          ipmovie);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (IPOD,             ipod);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IRCAM,            ircam);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (ISMV,             ismv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (ISS,              iss);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (IV8,              iv8);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(IVF,              ivf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(JACOSUB,          jacosub);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (JV,               jv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(LATM,             latm);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LMLM4,            lmlm4);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LOAS,             loas);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LVF,              lvf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LXF,              lxf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(M4V,              m4v);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MD5,              md5);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MATROSKA,         matroska);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MATROSKA_AUDIO,   matroska_audio);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MGSTS,            mgsts);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MICRODVD,         microdvd);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MJPEG,            mjpeg);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MLP,              mlp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MM,               mm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MMF,              mmf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MOV,              mov);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MP2,              mp2);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MP3,              mp3);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MP4,              mp4);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPC,              mpc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPC8,             mpc8);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG1SYSTEM,      mpeg1system);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG1VCD,         mpeg1vcd);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG1VIDEO,       mpeg1video);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2DVD,         mpeg2dvd);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2SVCD,        mpeg2svcd);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2VIDEO,       mpeg2video);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPEG2VOB,         mpeg2vob);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPEGPS,           mpegps);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MPEGTS,           mpegts);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPEGTSRAW,        mpegtsraw);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPEGVIDEO,        mpegvideo);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MPJPEG,           mpjpeg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPL2,             mpl2);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MPSUB,            mpsub);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MSNWC_TCP,        msnwc_tcp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MTV,              mtv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MV,               mv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MVI,              mvi);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(MXF,              mxf);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MXF_D10,          mxf_d10);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (MXG,              mxg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NC,               nc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NISTSPHERE,       nistsphere);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NSV,              nsv);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (NULL,             null);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(NUT,              nut);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (NUV,              nuv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(OGG,              ogg);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(OMA,              oma);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PAF,              paf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_ALAW,         pcm_alaw);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_MULAW,        pcm_mulaw);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F64BE,        pcm_f64be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F64LE,        pcm_f64le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F32BE,        pcm_f32be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_F32LE,        pcm_f32le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S32BE,        pcm_s32be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S32LE,        pcm_s32le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S24BE,        pcm_s24be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S24LE,        pcm_s24le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S16BE,        pcm_s16be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S16LE,        pcm_s16le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_S8,           pcm_s8);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U32BE,        pcm_u32be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U32LE,        pcm_u32le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U24BE,        pcm_u24be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U24LE,        pcm_u24le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U16BE,        pcm_u16be);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U16LE,        pcm_u16le);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(PCM_U8,           pcm_u8);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PJS,              pjs);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PMP,              pmp);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (PSP,              psp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PVA,              pva);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (PVF,              pvf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (QCP,              qcp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (R3D,              r3d);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RAWVIDEO,         rawvideo);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (REALTEXT,         realtext);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (REDSPARK,         redspark);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (RL2,              rl2);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RM,               rm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(ROQ,              roq);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (RPL,              rpl);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (RSD,              rsd);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RSO,              rso);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RTP,              rtp);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(RTSP,             rtsp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SAMI,             sami);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SAP,              sap);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SBG,              sbg);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SDP,              sdp);
#if CONFIG_RTPDEC
    av_register_rtp_dynamic_payload_handlers();
    av_register_rdt_dynamic_payload_handlers();
#endif
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SEGAFILM,         segafilm);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (SEGMENT,          segment);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (SEGMENT,          stream_segment);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SHORTEN,          shorten);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SIFF,             siff);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SMACKER,          smacker);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SMJPEG,           smjpeg);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (SMOOTHSTREAMING,  smoothstreaming);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SMUSH,            smush);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SOL,              sol);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SOX,              sox);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SPDIF,            spdif);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SRT,              srt);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (STR,              str);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SUBVIEWER1,       subviewer1);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (SUBVIEWER,        subviewer);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(SWF,              swf);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TAK,              tak);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (TEE,              tee);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TEDCAPTIONS,      tedcaptions);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (TG2,              tg2);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (TGP,              tgp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (THP,              thp);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TIERTEXSEQ,       tiertexseq);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (MKVTIMESTAMP_V2,  mkvtimestamp_v2);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TMV,              tmv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(TRUEHD,           truehd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TTA,              tta);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TXD,              txd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (TTY,              tty);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(VC1,              vc1);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(VC1T,             vc1t);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VIVO,             vivo);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VMD,              vmd);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VOBSUB,           vobsub);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(VOC,              voc);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VPLAYER,          vplayer);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (VQF,              vqf);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(W64,              w64);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WAV,              wav);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (WC3,              wc3);
    REGISTER_MUXER   (WEBM,             webm);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WEBVTT,           webvtt);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (WSAUD,            wsaud);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (WSVQA,            wsvqa);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WTV,              wtv);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(WV,               wv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XA,               xa);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XBIN,             xbin);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XMV,              xmv);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (XWMA,             xwma);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (YOP,              yop);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(YUV4MPEGPIPE,     yuv4mpegpipe);

    /* protocols */
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(BLURAY,           bluray);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(CACHE,            cache);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(CONCAT,           concat);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(CRYPTO,           crypto);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(DATA,             data);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FFRTMPCRYPT,      ffrtmpcrypt);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FFRTMPHTTP,       ffrtmphttp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FILE,             file);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(FTP,              ftp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(GOPHER,           gopher);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HLS,              hls);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HTTP,             http);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HTTPPROXY,        httpproxy);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(HTTPS,            https);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(MMSH,             mmsh);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(MMST,             mmst);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(MD5,              md5);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(PIPE,             pipe);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMP,             rtmp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPE,            rtmpe);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPS,            rtmps);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPT,            rtmpt);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPTE,           rtmpte);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTMPTS,           rtmpts);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(RTP,              rtp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(SCTP,             sctp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(SRTP,             srtp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(TCP,              tcp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(TLS,              tls);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(UDP,              udp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(UNIX,             unix);

    /* external libraries */
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LIBGME,           libgme);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LIBMODPLUG,       libmodplug);
    REGISTER_MUXDEMUX(LIBNUT,           libnut);
    REGISTER_DEMUXER (LIBQUVI,          libquvi);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMP,          librtmp);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPE,         librtmpe);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPS,         librtmps);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPT,         librtmpt);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBRTMPTE,        librtmpte);
    REGISTER_PROTOCOL(LIBSSH,           libssh);
}

Ffmpeg中的像素格式

见”libavutil/pixfmt.h”。

/**
 * Pixel format.
 *
 * @note
 * AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32 is handled in an endian-specific manner. An RGBA
 * color is put together as:
 *  (A << 24) | (R << 16) | (G << 8) | B
 * This is stored as BGRA on little-endian CPU architectures and ARGB on
 * big-endian CPUs.
 *
 * @par
 * When the pixel format is palettized RGB (AV_PIX_FMT_PAL8), the palettized
 * image data is stored in AVFrame.data[0]. The palette is transported in
 * AVFrame.data[1], is 1024 bytes long (256 4-byte entries) and is
 * formatted the same as in AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32 described above (i.e., it is
 * also endian-specific). Note also that the individual RGB palette
 * components stored in AVFrame.data[1] should be in the range 0..255.
 * This is important as many custom PAL8 video codecs that were designed
 * to run on the IBM VGA graphics adapter use 6-bit palette components.
 *
 * @par
 * For all the 8bit per pixel formats, an RGB32 palette is in data[1] like
 * for pal8. This palette is filled in automatically by the function
 * allocating the picture.
 *
 * @note
 * Make sure that all newly added big-endian formats have (pix_fmt & 1) == 1
 * and that all newly added little-endian formats have (pix_fmt & 1) == 0.
 * This allows simpler detection of big vs little-endian.
 */
enum AVPixelFormat {
    AV_PIX_FMT_NONE = -1,
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P,   ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 12bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUYV422,   ///< packed YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, Y0 Cb Y1 Cr
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB24,     ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 24bpp, RGBRGB...
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR24,     ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 24bpp, BGRBGR...
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P,   ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P,   ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV410P,   ///< planar YUV 4:1:0,  9bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 4x4 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV411P,   ///< planar YUV 4:1:1, 12bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 4x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY8,     ///<        Y        ,  8bpp
    AV_PIX_FMT_MONOWHITE, ///<        Y        ,  1bpp, 0 is white, 1 is black, in each byte pixels are ordered from the msb to the lsb
    AV_PIX_FMT_MONOBLACK, ///<        Y        ,  1bpp, 0 is black, 1 is white, in each byte pixels are ordered from the msb to the lsb
    AV_PIX_FMT_PAL8,      ///< 8 bit with PIX_FMT_RGB32 palette
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ420P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 12bpp, full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV420P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ422P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV422P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ444P,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 24bpp, full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV444P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_XVMC_MPEG2_MC,///< XVideo Motion Acceleration via common packet passing
    AV_PIX_FMT_XVMC_MPEG2_IDCT,
    AV_PIX_FMT_UYVY422,   ///< packed YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, Cb Y0 Cr Y1
    AV_PIX_FMT_UYYVYY411, ///< packed YUV 4:1:1, 12bpp, Cb Y0 Y1 Cr Y2 Y3
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR8,      ///< packed RGB 3:3:2,  8bpp, (msb)2B 3G 3R(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR4,      ///< packed RGB 1:2:1 bitstream,  4bpp, (msb)1B 2G 1R(lsb), a byte contains two pixels, the first pixel in the byte is the one composed by the 4 msb bits
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR4_BYTE, ///< packed RGB 1:2:1,  8bpp, (msb)1B 2G 1R(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB8,      ///< packed RGB 3:3:2,  8bpp, (msb)2R 3G 3B(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB4,      ///< packed RGB 1:2:1 bitstream,  4bpp, (msb)1R 2G 1B(lsb), a byte contains two pixels, the first pixel in the byte is the one composed by the 4 msb bits
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB4_BYTE, ///< packed RGB 1:2:1,  8bpp, (msb)1R 2G 1B(lsb)
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV12,      ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 12bpp, 1 plane for Y and 1 plane for the UV components, which are interleaved (first byte U and the following byte V)
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV21,      ///< as above, but U and V bytes are swapped

    AV_PIX_FMT_ARGB,      ///< packed ARGB 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, ARGBARGB...
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA,      ///< packed RGBA 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, RGBARGBA...
    AV_PIX_FMT_ABGR,      ///< packed ABGR 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, ABGRABGR...
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA,      ///< packed BGRA 8:8:8:8, 32bpp, BGRABGRA...

    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16BE,  ///<        Y        , 16bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16LE,  ///<        Y        , 16bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV440P,   ///< planar YUV 4:4:0 (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x2 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ440P,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:0 full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV440P and setting color_range
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples)
#if FF_API_VDPAU
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_H264,///< H.264 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_MPEG1,///< MPEG-1 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_MPEG2,///< MPEG-2 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_WMV3,///< WMV3 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_VC1, ///< VC-1 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48BE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48LE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as little-endian

    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565BE,  ///< packed RGB 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5R 6G 5B(lsb), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565LE,  ///< packed RGB 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5R 6G 5B(lsb), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555BE,  ///< packed RGB 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5R 5G 5B(lsb), big-endian, most significant bit to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555LE,  ///< packed RGB 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5R 5G 5B(lsb), little-endian, most significant bit to 0

    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565BE,  ///< packed BGR 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5B 6G 5R(lsb), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565LE,  ///< packed BGR 5:6:5, 16bpp, (msb)   5B 6G 5R(lsb), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555BE,  ///< packed BGR 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5B 5G 5R(lsb), big-endian, most significant bit to 1
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555LE,  ///< packed BGR 5:5:5, 16bpp, (msb)1A 5B 5G 5R(lsb), little-endian, most significant bit to 1

    AV_PIX_FMT_VAAPI_MOCO, ///< HW acceleration through VA API at motion compensation entry-point, Picture.data[3] contains a vaapi_render_state struct which contains macroblocks as well as various fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VAAPI_IDCT, ///< HW acceleration through VA API at IDCT entry-point, Picture.data[3] contains a vaapi_render_state struct which contains fields extracted from headers
    AV_PIX_FMT_VAAPI_VLD,  ///< HW decoding through VA API, Picture.data[3] contains a vaapi_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers

    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
#if FF_API_VDPAU
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU_MPEG4,  ///< MPEG4 HW decoding with VDPAU, data[0] contains a vdpau_render_state struct which contains the bitstream of the slices as well as various fields extracted from headers
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_DXVA2_VLD,    ///< HW decoding through DXVA2, Picture.data[3] contains a LPDIRECT3DSURFACE9 pointer

    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444LE,  ///< packed RGB 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4R 4G 4B(lsb), little-endian, most significant bits to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444BE,  ///< packed RGB 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4R 4G 4B(lsb), big-endian, most significant bits to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444LE,  ///< packed BGR 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4B 4G 4R(lsb), little-endian, most significant bits to 1
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444BE,  ///< packed BGR 4:4:4, 16bpp, (msb)4A 4B 4G 4R(lsb), big-endian, most significant bits to 1
    AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY8A,    ///< 8bit gray, 8bit alpha
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48BE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48LE,   ///< packed RGB 16:16:16, 48bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B component is stored as little-endian

    /**
     * The following 12 formats have the disadvantage of needing 1 format for each bit depth.
     * Notice that each 9/10 bits sample is stored in 16 bits with extra padding.
     * If you want to support multiple bit depths, then using AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16* with the bpp stored separately is better.
     */
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 13.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 13.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10BE,///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 15bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10LE,///< planar YUV 4:2:0, 15bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10BE,///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10LE,///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10BE,///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10LE,///< planar YUV 4:4:4, 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2, 18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_VDA_VLD,    ///< hardware decoding through VDA

#ifdef AV_PIX_FMT_ABI_GIT_MASTER
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64BE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64BE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP,      ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 24bpp
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9BE,   ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 27bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9LE,   ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 27bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10BE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 30bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10LE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 30bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16BE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 48bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16LE,  ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 48bpp, little-endian

    /**
     * duplicated pixel formats for compatibility with libav.
     * FFmpeg supports these formats since May 8 2012 and Jan 28 2012 (commits f9ca1ac7 and 143a5c55)
     * Libav added them Oct 12 2012 with incompatible values (commit 6d5600e85)
     */
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P_LIBAV,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P_LIBAV,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples)

    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P9BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 22.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P9LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 22.5bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P9BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P9LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 27bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P9BE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P9LE,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P10BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 25bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P10LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 25bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P10BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P10LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 30bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P10BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P10LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P16BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P16LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0 40bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P16BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P16LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 48bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P16BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 64bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, big-endian)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P16LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 64bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples, little-endian)

    AV_PIX_FMT_VDPAU,     ///< HW acceleration through VDPAU, Picture.data[3] contains a VdpVideoSurface

    AV_PIX_FMT_XYZ12LE,      ///< packed XYZ 4:4:4, 36 bpp, (msb) 12X, 12Y, 12Z (lsb), the 2-byte value for each X/Y/Z is stored as little-endian, the 4 lower bits are set to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_XYZ12BE,      ///< packed XYZ 4:4:4, 36 bpp, (msb) 12X, 12Y, 12Z (lsb), the 2-byte value for each X/Y/Z is stored as big-endian, the 4 lower bits are set to 0
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV16,         ///< interleaved chroma YUV 4:2:2, 16bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV20LE,       ///< interleaved chroma YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_NV20BE,       ///< interleaved chroma YUV 4:2:2, 20bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian

#ifndef AV_PIX_FMT_ABI_GIT_MASTER
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64BE=0x123,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16R, 16G, 16B, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64BE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64LE,  ///< packed RGBA 16:16:16:16, 64bpp, 16B, 16G, 16R, 16A, the 2-byte value for each R/G/B/A component is stored as little-endian
#endif
    AV_PIX_FMT_0RGB=0x123+4,      ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 32bpp, 0RGB0RGB...
    AV_PIX_FMT_RGB0,      ///< packed RGB 8:8:8, 32bpp, RGB0RGB0...
    AV_PIX_FMT_0BGR,      ///< packed BGR 8:8:8, 32bpp, 0BGR0BGR...
    AV_PIX_FMT_BGR0,      ///< packed BGR 8:8:8, 32bpp, BGR0BGR0...
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P,  ///< planar YUV 4:4:4 32bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y & A samples)
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P,  ///< planar YUV 4:2:2 24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y & A samples)

    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,18bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,21bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:0,21bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x2 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,24bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14BE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,28bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14LE, ///< planar YUV 4:2:2,28bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 2x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,36bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14BE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,42bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14LE, ///< planar YUV 4:4:4,42bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 1x1 Y samples), little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12BE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 36bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12LE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 36bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14BE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 42bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14LE,    ///< planar GBR 4:4:4 42bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP,       ///< planar GBRA 4:4:4:4 32bpp
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP16BE,   ///< planar GBRA 4:4:4:4 64bpp, big-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP16LE,   ///< planar GBRA 4:4:4:4 64bpp, little-endian
    AV_PIX_FMT_YUVJ411P,    ///< planar YUV 4:1:1, 12bpp, (1 Cr & Cb sample per 4x1 Y samples) full scale (JPEG), deprecated in favor of PIX_FMT_YUV411P and setting color_range

    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR8,    ///< bayer, BGBG..(odd line), GRGR..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB8,    ///< bayer, RGRG..(odd line), GBGB..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG8,    ///< bayer, GBGB..(odd line), RGRG..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG8,    ///< bayer, GRGR..(odd line), BGBG..(even line), 8-bit samples */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR16LE, ///< bayer, BGBG..(odd line), GRGR..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR16BE, ///< bayer, BGBG..(odd line), GRGR..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB16LE, ///< bayer, RGRG..(odd line), GBGB..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB16BE, ///< bayer, RGRG..(odd line), GBGB..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG16LE, ///< bayer, GBGB..(odd line), RGRG..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG16BE, ///< bayer, GBGB..(odd line), RGRG..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG16LE, ///< bayer, GRGR..(odd line), BGBG..(even line), 16-bit samples, little-endian */
    AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG16BE, ///< bayer, GRGR..(odd line), BGBG..(even line), 16-bit samples, big-endian */

    AV_PIX_FMT_NB,        ///< number of pixel formats, DO NOT USE THIS if you want to link with shared libav* because the number of formats might differ between versions

#if FF_API_PIX_FMT
#include "old_pix_fmts.h"
#endif
};

#if AV_HAVE_INCOMPATIBLE_LIBAV_ABI
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P_LIBAV
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P_LIBAV
#endif


#define AV_PIX_FMT_Y400A AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY8A
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBR24P AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP

#if AV_HAVE_BIGENDIAN
#   define AV_PIX_FMT_NE(be, le) AV_PIX_FMT_##be
#else
#   define AV_PIX_FMT_NE(be, le) AV_PIX_FMT_##le
#endif

#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32   AV_PIX_FMT_NE(ARGB, BGRA)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGBA, ABGR)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32   AV_PIX_FMT_NE(ABGR, RGBA)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGRA, ARGB)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_0RGB32  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(0RGB, BGR0)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_0BGR32  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(0BGR, RGB0)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GRAY16BE, GRAY16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB48BE,  RGB48LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB565BE, RGB565LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB555BE, RGB555LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGB444BE, RGB444LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR48BE,  BGR48LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR565BE, BGR565LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR555BE, BGR555LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGR444BE, BGR444LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P9BE , YUV420P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P9BE , YUV422P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P9BE , YUV444P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P10BE, YUV420P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P10BE, YUV422P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P10BE, YUV444P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P12BE, YUV420P12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P12BE, YUV422P12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P12BE, YUV444P12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P14BE, YUV420P14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P14BE, YUV422P14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P14BE, YUV444P14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV420P16BE, YUV420P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV422P16BE, YUV422P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUV444P16BE, YUV444P16LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(RGBA64BE, RGBA64LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BGRA64BE, BGRA64LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9     AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP9BE ,    GBRP9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP10BE,    GBRP10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP12BE,    GBRP12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP14BE,    GBRP14LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16    AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRP16BE,    GBRP16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_GBRAP16   AV_PIX_FMT_NE(GBRAP16BE,   GBRAP16LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_BGGR16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_BGGR16BE,    BAYER_BGGR16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_RGGB16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_RGGB16BE,    BAYER_RGGB16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GBRG16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_GBRG16BE,    BAYER_GBRG16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_BAYER_GRBG16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(BAYER_GRBG16BE,    BAYER_GRBG16LE)


#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA420P9BE , YUVA420P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA422P9BE , YUVA422P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P9  AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA444P9BE , YUVA444P9LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA420P10BE, YUVA420P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA422P10BE, YUVA422P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P10 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA444P10BE, YUVA444P10LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA420P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA420P16BE, YUVA420P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA422P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA422P16BE, YUVA422P16LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_YUVA444P16 AV_PIX_FMT_NE(YUVA444P16BE, YUVA444P16LE)

#define AV_PIX_FMT_XYZ12      AV_PIX_FMT_NE(XYZ12BE, XYZ12LE)
#define AV_PIX_FMT_NV20       AV_PIX_FMT_NE(NV20BE,  NV20LE)

#if FF_API_PIX_FMT
#define PixelFormat AVPixelFormat

#define PIX_FMT_Y400A AV_PIX_FMT_Y400A
#define PIX_FMT_GBR24P AV_PIX_FMT_GBR24P

#define PIX_FMT_NE(be, le) AV_PIX_FMT_NE(be, le)

#define PIX_FMT_RGB32   AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32
#define PIX_FMT_RGB32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32_1
#define PIX_FMT_BGR32   AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32
#define PIX_FMT_BGR32_1 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR32_1
#define PIX_FMT_0RGB32  AV_PIX_FMT_0RGB32
#define PIX_FMT_0BGR32  AV_PIX_FMT_0BGR32

#define PIX_FMT_GRAY16 AV_PIX_FMT_GRAY16
#define PIX_FMT_RGB48  AV_PIX_FMT_RGB48
#define PIX_FMT_RGB565 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB565
#define PIX_FMT_RGB555 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB555
#define PIX_FMT_RGB444 AV_PIX_FMT_RGB444
#define PIX_FMT_BGR48  AV_PIX_FMT_BGR48
#define PIX_FMT_BGR565 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR565
#define PIX_FMT_BGR555 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR555
#define PIX_FMT_BGR444 AV_PIX_FMT_BGR444

#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P9  AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P9
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P9  AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P9
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P9  AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P9
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P10 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P10
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P10 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P10
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P10 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P10
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P12 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P12
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P12 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P12
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P12 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P12
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P14 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P14
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P14 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P14
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P14 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P14
#define PIX_FMT_YUV420P16 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P16
#define PIX_FMT_YUV422P16 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV422P16
#define PIX_FMT_YUV444P16 AV_PIX_FMT_YUV444P16

#define PIX_FMT_RGBA64 AV_PIX_FMT_RGBA64
#define PIX_FMT_BGRA64 AV_PIX_FMT_BGRA64
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP9  AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP9
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP10 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP10
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP12 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP12
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP14 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP14
#define PIX_FMT_GBRP16 AV_PIX_FMT_GBRP16
#endif

#endif /* AVUTIL_PIXFMT_H */

【 Perl 】控制Firefox实现自动化Web测试

安装

1、安装Firefox插件

git clone git://github.com/bard/mozrepl
cd mozrepl
zip -r ../mozrepl.zip *
cd ..
mv mozrepl.zip mozrepl.xpi

2、安装Perl模块

cpanm WWW::Mechanize::Firefox
cpanm HTML::Display::Common

3、启动插件
先打开Firefox;
然后Firefox -> 工具 -> MozRepl -> Start

4、开始写程序控制你的Firefox吧

一个简单的例子

以打开新浪首页为例。

use WWW::Mechanize::Firefox;
my $mech = WWW::Mechanize::Firefox->new( autoclose => 0, activate => 1 );
$mech->get('http://sina.com.cn');

一个稍复杂的例子

让Firefox自动打开百度首页
1、在终端上输出页面title;
2、在浏览器中搜索一个词”perl”。

use strict;
use warnings;

use WWW::Mechanize::Firefox;
binmode STDOUT, ':utf8';

my $mech = WWW::Mechanize::Firefox->new( autoclose => 0, activate => 1 );
$mech->get('http://baidu.com');
print $mech->title();
$mech->form_name( "f" );
$mech->set_fields( "wd", "perl" );
$mech->submit;

效果如这个视频所示

v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNzU3MTY2NTg4.html

抽取某条微博的全部评论

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
use warnings;

use WWW::Mechanize::Firefox;
use utf8::all;
use File::Slurp;
use JSON::XS;
use Encode;
use URL::Encode qw(url_decode_utf8 url_decode);
use Data::Dump qw(ddx);

my $mech = WWW::Mechanize::Firefox->new( autoclose => 1, activate => 1 );
my $url = 'http://weibo.com/aj/comment/big?_wv=5&id=3744295209134458&max_id=3744609358765392&filter=0&__rnd=1408272337687';
for ( 1 .. 42)
{
	$mech->get( "$url&page=$_" );
	my $a = encode( 'utf8', $mech->content( raw => 1 ));
	$a =~ s/.*?//g;
	$a =~ s/<\/prre><\/body><\/html>//g;
	#print $a;

	my %b = %{decode_json $a};
	my $c = $b{'data'}{'html'};
	$c =~ s/\n//smg;
	$c =~ s/\s+/ /smg;
	$c =~ s/>/>/smg;
	$c =~ s/</.*?<\/a>:.*?)/smg;
	foreach (@abc)
	{
		my ($name, $words) = $_ =~ /usercard="id=\d+">(.*?)<\/a>:(.*?)/;
		$name =~ s/<\/a>//g;
		$name =~ s///g;
		$words =~ s/<\/a>//g;
		$words =~ s///g;
		$words =~ s///g;
		print "$name => $words\n";
	}
}

相关文档

WWW::Mechanize https://metacpan.org/pod/WWW::Mechanize
WWW::Mechanize::Firefox https://metacpan.org/pod/WWW::Mechanize::Firefox
WWW::Mechanize::Firefox::Examples https://metacpan.org/pod/WWW::Mechanize::Firefox::Examples
WWW::Mechanize::Firefox::Cookbook https://metacpan.org/pod/distribution/WWW-Mechanize-Firefox/lib/WWW/Mechanize/Firefox/Cookbook.pod

和QTP、WinRunner、Selenium相比看看,Perl确实让这件事变得简单些了。